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Introduction

Nano-Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) solar cells are a cutting-edge thin-film solar technology based on heterojunctions of p-type CdTe and n-type CdS. They offer remarkable advantages in terms of efficiency and cost-effectiveness. In this article, we will take you through the step-by-step process of manufacturing CdTe solar cells.

Step 1: Preparing the Substrate
Glass Substrate: The process begins with a high-quality glass substrate, which serves as the foundation for the solar cell. To enhance transparency, a transparent conductive film (TCO) is deposited onto the glass surface.

Transparent High Resistance Transition (HRT) Film: A transparent high resistance transition film is applied to ensure a smooth transition and maintain electrical integrity within the solar cell structure.

Step 2: Deposition of Semiconductor Films
Deposition of Cadmium Sulfide (CdS): The first semiconductor layer, n-type CdS, is deposited using vapor transport deposition (VTD). CdS acts as the electron-donor layer.

Deposition of Cadmium Telluride (CdTe): Following the CdS layer, the p-type CdTe film is deposited using the same VTD process. CdTe functions as the electron-acceptor layer.

Step 3: Activation and Junction Formation
Activation Treatment: To improve the crystal structure and activate the PN junction, CdCl2 (cadmium chloride) activation treatment is applied. This critical step enhances the efficiency and performance of the CdTe solar cell.
Step 4: Electrode Deposition
Metal Electrode Deposition: To complete the electrical circuit and facilitate energy collection, a metal electrode (typically composed of Molybdenum (Mo), Aluminum (Al), and Chromium (Cr)) is deposited onto the CdTe layer. This is typically done through physical vapor deposition (PVD).
Step 5: Assembly and Encapsulation
Battery Structure Formation: The resulting structure comprises a glass substrate, TCO, CdS, CdTe, and the metal electrode layers in sequence, creating the solar cell structure.

Sealing the Solar Cell: Butyl and EVA tapes are applied to the base of the solar cell to ensure proper insulation and encapsulation. These materials provide protection against environmental factors and ensure long-term durability.

Lamination: The solar cell is then laminated to further seal and protect it from environmental influences. Lamination enhances the longevity of the solar cell.

Step 6: Junction Box Installation
Junction Box: To complete the assembly, a junction box is installed. This box serves as a connection point for the solar cell, allowing for the collection of the generated electrical energy. It also provides safety features and weatherproofing.
The completed CdTe solar cell is a sophisticated and efficient energy harvesting device that can be integrated into solar panels and arrays. These cells are celebrated for their high efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and reliability, making them a pivotal player in the transition to clean and sustainable energy sources.

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